Cash retentions under construction contracts are common practice in the construction industry. However, there is a growing concern that retentions are not being released in a timely manner, an issue worsened by the effects of Covid-19. As more and more companies feel the pinch of the pandemic and insolvencies rise, it is increasingly important for clients to protect their position in respect of retentions.


A retention is a percentage value of the overall payment for construction works which is held back, typically by a main contractor under a construction contract. The purpose of the retention is to act as security that the works will be completed by the sub-contractor and that any defects which may subsequently develop are remedied. If the sub-contractor does not remedy a defect, the contractor may use the retention to remedy the defect itself and notify the sub-contractor that they have used the retention money for this purpose.

Retentions in standard form construction contracts

Standard forms of contract – known as ‘JCT contracts’ – are in common use in the construction industry. The retention provisions in these standard form contracts are generally extensive. The default position under the JCT standard form contracts is that the main contractor may retain 3% of each interim payment to the sub-contractor until practical completion of the works. However, parties are free to agree the amount of any retention, or no retention at all, for example as part of any commercial negotiation.

Some commentators view that a retention is held as a conditional loan, where the condition is that the retention will be repaid if either the works comply with the contract, or any defective works are remedied to ensure compliance. Others argue that the retention money is held on trust by the main contractor i.e. there is a fiduciary duty in relation to the retention funds. The JCT contracts reflect the principle that the retention is held on trust.

Release of retentions

When a main contractor should release the retention will depend entirely on what has been agreed in the parties' contract. Under the JCT standard form contracts, the first half of the retention is paid when the project is completed, and the second half is paid following the expiration of the defects liability period.

Within the construction industry, there is a general concern that retentions are often not released in a timely manner. This issue has been exacerbated by the effects of Covid-19, where cash-strapped construction companies have looked to withhold the release of retentions to maintain a cash flow within their own business. When retentions are not released promptly, the unpaid party must expend time and money chasing payment, may lose the retention entirely if the main contractor becomes insolvent, and may also face an insolvency risk themselves due to the sums tied up in retentions.

What can you do if you are owed retention monies?

If a main contractor does not promptly release a retention under the terms of the contract, the sub-contractor should consider whether, under the terms of their contract, they need to serve notice on the main contractor for release of the retention. If the retention monies are still not released, and the unpaid party concludes that the retention should have been released and there is no valid payment or ‘pay less’ notice, then it may consider referring the dispute to adjudication or any other dispute resolution mechanism allowed in the contract.

At B P Collins LLP, our construction team advise both sub-contractors and main contractors in claims concerning the release of retention monies.

For further information or advice, please get in touch with our construction specialists in the Dispute Resolution team on 01753 889995 or email

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Rajiv Malhotra
Senior Associate

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